Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI) are the key drivers for economic growth and human development everywhere in the world. Modern India has a strong focus on science, technology, and innovation. Indian Science has come to be regarded as one of the most powerful instruments of growth and development, especially in the emerging scenario and competitive economy. Indian higher education significantly contributes towards sustainable livelihoods and the economic development of the nation.
India has a strong network of science and technology institutions and trained manpower. It is the third-largest scientific and technical manpower pool globally, with many world-class, internationally ranked universities. The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are among the most prestigious institutions worldwide, which are known globally for excellence in technical education, innovation, entrepreneurship, and research. India is among the top-ranking countries in the field of basic research. The country remains among the top three countries in scientific publication as per the NSF database and has also reached the third position in terms of no of PhDs, in size of Higher Education System; as well as in terms of number of Start-ups. From 2014 to 2021, India recorded a 572% growth in patent approvals.
India is among the top five nations in the field of space exploration. The country has regularly undertaken space missions, including a low-cost mission to the moon and the well-known Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). India also generates revenue by offering its space facilities for use to other countries. Besides, ISRO will launch its first human mission by 2022. India is taking giant strides in scientific research for several other sectors such as agriculture, healthcare, defense, biotechnology, climate change, energy, environment, medical devices, manufacturing, and nuclear power.
As per the Employability rankings 2020, India is the 15th most employable country in the world. India is a major global information technology hub with around 75 percent of international digital talent present in the country. India is the top exporter of IT products, has the third-largest pharma sector, and a fast-growing contract research segment. It ranks tenth in the Global Cybersecurity Index 2020 that was launched by the International Telecommunication Union. India has been portrayed as successful in developing sophisticated services that are technologically dynamic and can be traded internationally. It continues to lead the world in the information and communication technology services exports indicator (1st). It holds top ranks in other indicators, such as domestic industry diversification (12th) and graduates in science and engineering (12th).
Over the past several years, India has been on a rising trajectory in the Global Innovation Index, from a rank of 81 in 2015 to 46 in 2021. The consistent improvement in the GII ranking is due to the immense knowledge capital, vibrant start-up ecosystem, and amazing work done by public and private research organizations.
India is aggressively working towards establishing itself as a leader in industrialization and technological development. The government of India, through the Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy (STIP), among other things, aspires to achieve technological self-reliance and position India among the top three scientific superpowers in the decade to come.